Native Americans lived for thousands of years in what is now called the Houston Wilderness region, stretching eastward from Lake Livingston to the Trinity River and westward beyond the Brazos. Along the northern border of League City, a midden site on Clear Creek reveals human occupation during the Paleo-Indian period beginning around 9000 to 8000 BC. It is the earliest shell midden discovered and recorded in Southeast Texas. Archaeologists have determined that the site continued to be occupied seasonally until the early sixteenth century.
The last Native American group to use the Clear Creek midden site belonged to the Akokisa (or Orcoquisac) tribe, who ranged from Galveston Bay north to present-day Conroe. They were an Atakapa-speaking people ancestrally related to the Atakapa tribes that dwelled to the east in Louisiana.
The name Akokisa is thought to mean “river people.” They were hunters and gatherers who moved seasonally with food supplies. From October to the end of February, these Indians lived on the barrier islands where they spearfished and collected oysters and bird eggs. During the spring and summer they moved inland to camps along the shores of rivers and creeks where they gathered roots and berries and hunted game with bows and arrows. For shelter, they built structures on accumulated mounds of discarded clamshells, lined with willows and covered with mats and skins.
By the early eighteenth century, the Atakapa tribes possessed horses, which enabled more proficient hunting of deer, buffalo, and bear to trade with the French residing in East Texas. However, disease and war with westward-moving Anglo-Americans severely decimated the number of native peoples of southeast Texas. By the early nineteenth century, only scattered camps remained made up of occupants of several different tribes.
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Water Line Development CIP Projects
Water system improvements represent the single largest program category with $105.6 million in projects to be funded during the FY 2015-2019 period. These projects focus on improvements to the distribution and renewal of the existing water system and address obtaining new supply and its distribution. New bond financing backed by utility revenues over five years is required for $84.1 million of this total. Key projects in FY 2015, with a total of $23.5 million in funding, include construction of 36-inch waterline from SH3 booster station to South Shore Harbour booster station, construction of segments 3-5 of the southeast service area trunk lines, annual waterline upgrades and replacements, and construction of the new east side elevated tank and well.
Also included in the proposed CIP is League City’s proportional share (estimated at $43.6 million) of the expected construction by the City of Houston of a 60-inch upsized replacement for the 42-inch water line down State Highway 3. This line provides 68 percent of League City’s current surface water supply.